free throws1

There are numerous instances in which free throws may be awarded.

The first and most frequent instance is when a player is fouled while shooting. If a player misses a shot during a foul, he or she receives two or three free throws, depending on whether the shot was taken in front of or behind the three-point line. If the player makes the shot notwithstanding the foul, the number of free throws is decreased to one and the basket counts. Depending on the value of the made basket, this is a three-point play or a four-point play.

The second occurs when the team that committed the foul is in a team bonus (or foul penalty) position. This occurs when, in a single quarter, a team commits a certain number of shooting-related or non-shooting fouls. In FIBA, (W)NBA, and NCAA women’s competition, four fouls per quarter is the limit; in the NBA, starting with the fifth foul (fourth in overtime) or the second in the final two minutes if the team has fewer than five fouls (four in overtime), the opposing team receives two free throws. In the final two minutes of each quarter, the WNBA follows the NBA’s rules regarding the reset of the team foul count (including overtime). In FIBA and NCAA women’s basketball, the fouled player shoots two free throws beginning with the opponent’s fifth foul in a period, as team fouls accrue beginning with the fourth quarter and overtimes count as extensions of the fourth period for the purposes of team fouls. Beginning with the seventh foul of the half in NCAA men’s basketball, one free throw is awarded; if the player makes the free throw, another is awarded. This is known as a “one-and-one” shot. Two free throws are awarded beginning with the tenth foul of the half. In addition, overtime is considered a continuation of the second half for foul accumulation reasons.  DMV Appliance  Even if the fouled side is in the bonus, offensive fouls (most commonly charging fouls) do not result in free throws. College men’s basketball is divided into two 20-minute halves, as opposed to 12-minute quarters in the NBA, WNBA, college women’s basketball, and FIBA competition (note that the college women’s game was played in 20-minute halves prior to 2015–16). As in the professional game, a shooting foul results in two or three shots, depending on the value of the shot attempt, and one free throw if the shot is successful.

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In college, if a player is injured upon being fouled and unable to shoot free throws, the offensive team may designate any player from the bench to shoot in place of the injured player; in the NBA, the opposing team designates the player to shoot, and the injured player cannot return unless the foul committed was a flagrant-2 foul, in which case the player’s own team also chooses the replacement shooter. If a player fouled takes exception to the foul, begins or engages in a fight, and is subsequently expelled, he or she is not permitted to shoot free throws, and the opposing team will select a replacement shooter. In all other situations, the fouled player must take his own free throws.

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If a player, coach, or team staff (e.g., doctor, statistician) demonstrates poor sportsmanship, which may include arguing with a referee, or commits a technical violation (delay of game, excessive time outs, or when a team has no eligible players remaining after a player has fouled out and the last player to foul out must re-enter the game; the latter two are NBA rules), that individual may be charged with a more serious foul called Technical fouls in the NBA and FIBA result in one free-throw attempt for the opposing team. Technical fouls are classified as “Class A” (violent or substantial unsportsmanlike conduct) and “Class B” under NCAA regulations (less egregious violations such as hanging on the rim or delay of game). Class A technical fouls result in two free throws, but Class B technical fouls result in one free throw. At all levels, the opposing team may select any player on the court to shoot the free throws and is then handed possession of the ball following the free throws. Since there is no chance for a rebound, these free throws are taken with no one in the shooting path.  MyReadingManga

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Lastly, if a referee finds a foul to be excessively aggressive or to have been committed without an attempt to play the ball, he or she may call an even more serious violation, known as a “unsportsmanlike foul” in international and NCAA women’s play and a “flagrant foul” in NBA and NCAA men’s basketball. This foul is assessed to the player (who, depending on the severity of the infraction, may be dismissed), and the opponent receives two free throws and ball control. In contrast to technical fouls, the fouled player must take the awarded free throws.

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